Rites and holidays of the Chuvash people in the past were closely associated with their pagan religious beliefs and in strict conformity with economic and agricultural calendar.
Cycle rituals began with the winter holiday of claiming good livestock offspring – surgery (sheep spirit), dated to the time of the winter solstice. During the festival children and youth groups bypassed HOMESTEAD village, entering the house, the owners wanted a good livestock offspring, sang songs with spells. The owners presented their dishes.
Traditional Chuvash youth festivals and entertainments were held in all seasons. In spring and summer the youth of the village, several villages, gathered outdoors on the dance uyav (Vaillant, Taka, Pooh). In winter, arranged gatherings (larni) in the huts, where were temporarily absent senior masters. Get-togethers on the girl spun, and with the arrival of the boys started the game, party participants sang songs, danced, etc. In mid-winter feast was held the saree fuck (literally – maiden beer). Girls chipped brewed beer, baked pies and one home together with the young men organized a youth party.
After the Christianization of the baptized Chuvash highlighted those holidays that coincide with pagan calendar (Christmas with surgery, Shrove Tuesday and sāvarṇi, with whit Simek, etc.), accompanying them with both Christian and pagan rites. Under the influence of the Church in the life of the Chuvash people has spread the feast day of the Church. By the end of XIX – beginning of XX century of the Christian festivals and rituals in everyday life of the baptized Chuvash became prevalent.
1. The holidays of the winter cycle
Chuvash holiday ritual entertainment
The Chuvash people are widely existed a variety of rituals, ostavlenie all significant moments in the life of a family, a village, in the calendar cycle, in the production activity: Surgery; Narracan (martaban); Kasari (credence); Kiremet Carty; averni (Carnival); Kalam; serein; Manson; Aka Patti; akatay; imek; Uyav; Varma; Avan; Cleme; CHK; Nimes; Kiremet Carty.
Ritual calendar was opened with a celebration of Surgury. This is an ancient Chuvash holiday. In the more ancient version, it had a connection with the worship of tribal spirits – patrons of cattle. Hence the name of the holiday (from the sur IRRI – sheep spirit). It was celebrated during the winter solstice, when the day began to arrive. Surgery and lasted an entire week. During the celebration ceremonies took place, designed to ensure economic success and personal well-being of people, for good harvests and livestock offspring in the new year. On the first day of surgury children gathered in groups and went around the village HOMESTEAD. They sang songs about the coming of the new year, congratulated the villagers with the holiday, inviting other guys to join their company. Entering the house, the owners wanted a good livestock offspring, sang songs with spells, and they in turn presented their dishes. Later, surgery coincided with the Christian Christmas (Rasta) and lasted until Epiphany (Kaserne).
One of the new year holiday cycle – narracan (martaban) – distributed Zakamskaya Uralic and Chuvash. Began on December 25, the winter solstice, and lasted an entire week. It corresponds to the feast of surgery – riding and dick Sari – grassroots Chuvash.
For the celebration was chosen erected in the past year, new home. The owner did not refuse, during the construction of the house, the youth organized collective assistance (Nimes) – free worked for the transportation of construction materials and the construction of houses. This house was called narracan prce – house, where was held narracan.
During narukana the kids from the morning ride from the hill on a sled. While they were singing special songs – narracan of sevvices. Dusk over the village here and there were heard cries: Narukana-Ah! Narukana. i.e. narracan. The boys gathered in groups, having among themselves, went home to dress up in Christmas Santa (narracan the old man) and Yule dough (narracan qarchak). The guys were mostly dressed in women’s clothing, girls in the men’s. After a while mummers went outside and began to walk from house to house. Among the mummers were to be found: and merchant Tatar, and comedian with a bear, and Marika-the matchmaker, and the camel with a horse and a Gypsy fortune-teller. Led the procession Martyan the old man with the whip and narracan qarchak with a distaff and a spindle. Guys, first of all, interested in the homes in which they live their lady or invited to the feast narracan from other villages. On ordinary days it was not common to enter into such house, and in the feast of this could be done under cover of fancy clothes.
Began a March along a pre-planned homes. In every house with different variations played out this funny scene. Dressed old guy sat at the spinning-wheel and began to spin. Dressed as a pilgrim girl, swinging the broom, began to scold and rebuke, threatened to stick her in the distaff. At the same time she snatched one of the accompanying bottle of water and poured water on the hem of the audience. All this was done with great humor. In the end all the entertainers began to dance to the music and the noisy accompaniment of an oven damper rattles. Asked for a dance and Ho