History of the New year. How was the holiday?
New year – one of the most fun and favorite holidays of our people. But as we meet him, he was not always so.
Actually, it took quite a long time before he became our most long-awaited holiday. And journalists family online magazine how it was before.
Below we will consider:
The emergence of the New year in foreign countries
To celebrate the New year people began in ancient times. Let us consider the formation of celebrating the New year as a holiday in various countries around the world.
In India . Mesopotamia, Armenia, he was met on March 21, the equinox, when spring comes, and began field work was done for a reason, and in order to obtain a rich harvest.
In Ancient Greece, New year is celebrated on 22 June, when it was the longest day of the year. Celebrated its fun, with processions in mummers costumes satyrs, glorifying the God of Wine, Dionysus.
In Ancient Egypt, New year was celebrated in September, the mysteries in honor of the star Sirius. The priests performed the ceremony in honor of the star appeared in the sky.
But Rome has left a bright trace in the formation and celebration of the New year, thanks to the legendary Roman Emperor Julius Caesar. It was he who introduced his calendar with 365 days, 7 days a week. It is for him in an enlightened world began to chronology.
The advent of the New year in Russia and Russia in particular
Our ancestors-Slavs, as in the world of sun worship, Persians, Indians, preaching the Vedas, the New year began on March 21. After the Christianization of Russia, the New year began March 1 to celebrate. This continued for a long time, until, presumably in the XV century, the Church moved the date of the celebration on September 1. By this time, began harvesting and had the opportunity to take stock of the year and in every sense of the word to relax and celebrate. Therefore, the celebration of New year has become one of the most favorite holidays in Russia. At this time there were mass folk festivals, a wide feasts and fairs.
The Russian Orthodox Church as the basis of chronology adopted the Julian calendar. He gives an inaccuracy in the calculation of time and now the difference between the Julian calendar and the calendar of the new style is thirteen days. The new style calendar is the Gregorian calendar, which is based on the same Julian day, but adjusted for these thirteen days.
The fact that the Earth makes an annual turnover not for 365 days and over 365 days with “tail”. Over time, this “tail” and grew up to these days.
Thus, until 1 September 1699 in Russia celebrated the New year in this way. Peter I, the great reformer, including the way of life of his subjects, ordered and decreed that the celebration of the New year should now be 1 January. In the same decree it was ordered to celebrate the New year: the tradition of decorating the Christmas tree with toys and other tinsel, use crackers and masquerade is from this decree. Along the way Peter introduced the new calendar from the birth of Christ. The old chronology from the creation of the world are also allowed.
With the coming to power of Bolsheviks led by V. I. Lenin all began to change. The change also affected the calendar – report of dates now conducted in the Gregorian style. New year was declared a bourgeois holiday, a relic of the past. In return, started to bring the proletarian holidays.
It was not until 1935, while in one of the Newspapers there was an article stating that children of workers and peasants should be celebrating the New year is not worse than their peers from capitalist countries. Instantly across the country began selling Christmas trees, decorations, cards and sweets. It was then that the New year has become one of the most favorite holidays of the Soviet people.
According to Western traditions Christmas is celebrated before the New year, it is, in General, and is the main Winter holiday. By and large it is the birth of Christ is the event that marked the transition to a new era and, consequently, meant the beginning of the New year. In Europe also live in the Gregorian calendar, and so there is no confusion in the holidays.
In turn, our Orthodox Church uses the Julian calendar, old style, so first we celebrate New year, and then, from 6 to 7 January we celebrate Christmas. From 13 to 14 January in fact the New year in the old style, which we called the Old New year. At the time, one of the patriarchs of the Orthodox Church wanted to impose the Gregorian style, but it never caught on, and everyone went back to the old tradition.
However, the Christmas holidays in the USSR from 1930 to 1947 and as such was not, as of 1 January in the USSR was a work day, and in 1947 the first day of the New year was the weekend, and since 1992 has made the weekends and 2 January. Since 2005 in Russia were established 5-day new year’s weekend, who in 2013 decided to reduce because of the long “spree” of the population, affecting both the health and the working environment of the population.
Another interesting fact of celebrating the New year was introduced in late 1969, when with the advancing 1970 the country has congratulated the country’s leader Leonid Brezhnev. This tradition exists to this day, when the head of state for 5 minutes before the New year delivers a congratulatory speech.
Today, New year is considered one of the major holidays. All tend to spend it as best as possible to joyful emotions are remembered for a lifetime.